ePOSTER  
Theme: Best Practice in Teaching and Learning
  • Currently 0.00/5
  • 1
  • 1
  • 2
  • 2
  • 3
  • 3
  • 4
  • 4
  • 5
  • 5

Rating: 0.0/5 (0 votes cast)

Abstract Title Logo
Crossword puzzles: Active learning tool of anatomy in medical education
Authors: Dr. Mohammed Nazeer
Mrs. Razia Sultana
Dr. Mohammad Muzammil Ahmed
Dr. Sreekanth T
Dr. Mohammad Rehan Asad
Mr Waqas Sami
Dr Haroon Rasheed
Institutions: College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia
Background

Introduction

Incorporation of active-learning methods: 

  • Allows facilitator to engage students.
  • Makes the learning process interesting and interactive.
  • Promotes acquisition of attitudes.
  • For acquiring skills.
  • Improves understanding and learning.

Crossword Puzzles:

  • It is a novel tool for small group learning.
  • A well-organized crossword puzzle is likely to test higher levels of cognition.

Rationale of the Study

  • In the present scenario, the fundamental concepts of Anatomy are taught through didactic lectures, which results in:
  • Passive learning by the students.
  • Unable to exhibit the desired level of competency.
  • Students often find it difficult to remember and recall the terminologies.
  • This situation tempted us to think about an active learning tool which can help to reinforce the key concepts and better retention of the new terminologies.
  • To improve vocabulary and encourage active learning crosswords were introduced as a teaching and learning tool.

AIM

  • To evaluate the usefulness of crossword puzzles as a learning tool in the subject of anatomy at the level of undergraduate medical curriculum.

OBJECTIVES

  • To evaluate and asses the students perception regarding the usefulness of crosswords as a quick and effective way in reinforcing the essential concepts and vocabulary.
  • To design, implement, and evaluate the use of crossword puzzles as an educational tool to facilitate active learning of human anatomy.
Summary of Work

Materials and Methods

  • Study Design: Cross sectional study.
  • Setting: Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Hyderabad, India.
  • Study Period: September - 2015 to August - 2016.

Methodology:

  • An ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethical committee of the college.
  • 150 medical students of 1st MBBS of batch 2015-16 were included in the study.
  • Set of 8 Crossword puzzles with 50 clues in each was prepared and given to the students.
  • Crossword puzzles were constructed with the help of free online soft ware - eclipsecrossword.com.
  • Students were randomly divided into groups of 5/6.
  • Students were oriented and instructed as to mode of filling the grids.
  • An informed verbal consent of the students was taken.
  • Administered during the dissection sessions of different regions in the last 45 min.
  • Answers were checked with key answers and results was declared.
  • A feedback questionnaire was prepared.
  • Responses from the students in the form of feedback questionnaire were statistically analysed.
  • Program was evaluated using a 5 point Likerts Scale.

Summary of Results
  • Response rate - 97% (145 students out of 150).
  • Score improved from 50% in first set to 84% in the eighth set.
  • Average crossword completion index - 70.25%
  • Major outcome evaluated - Student’s perception about the crossword puzzles as a learning tool.
  • Few students reported “this activity to be a waste of time” (3%).

 

Table I: Student Perceptions of Crossword Puzzle as Teaching Tool

S. No

Statements

Number (%)

 

Strongly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agree (4)

Strongly Agree (5)

1

Fun experience to solve crossword puzzles

06 (4.00)

03 (2.00)

04 (2.66)

17 (11.33)

120 (80.00)

2

They were a waste of time

135 (90.00)

09 (6.00)

03 (2.00)

02 (1.33)

01 (0.66)

3

Emphasized core area of topic

03 (2.00)

04 (2.66)

06 (4.00)

36 (24.00)

101 (67.33)

4

Challenging and problem solving

04 (2.66)

06 (4.00)

20 (13.33)

30 (20.00)

90 (60.00)

5

Improved my understanding of the topic

02 (1.33)

03 (2.00)

03 (2.00)

32 (21.33)

110 (73.33)

6

Helped to remember important terms from the topic

03 (2.00)

04 (2.66)

03 (2.00)

33 (22.00)

107 (71.33)

7

Recommend their use for other subjects also to encourage active learning

10 (6.66)

04 (2.66)

15 (10.00)

23 (15.33)

98 (65.33)

8

The level of difficulty was uniformly maintained

09 (6.00)

06 (4.00)

10 (6.66)

23 (15.33)

102 (68.00)

9

They helped me in working together and team building

04 (2.66)

06 (4.00)

09 (6.00)

12 (8.00)

119 (79.33)

10

Promoted active learning

04 (2.66)

12 (8.00)

15 (10.00)

21 (14.00)

98 (65.33)

11

Enjoyed learning through recreation

03 (2.00)

06 (4.00)

08 (5.33)

15 (10.00)

118 (78.66)

12

Time allotted to solve the cross word was adequate

03 (2.00)

04 (2.66)

04 (2.66)

27 (18.00)

112 (74.66)

Item 13. What according to you were the strength for solving the crossword puzzles and suggestions to improve learning through crossword puzzles?

 

Table II. Shows the strengths for solving the crossword puzzles and suggestions to improve learning through crossword puzzles.

Strengths:

Suggestions

In depth study

Crossword puzzles should be regularly given at the end of each topic

 

Makes learning enjoyable through recreation

 

They should be used as a learning tool in other subjects also

 

Enhances the knowledge on the topic

 

It is a good method for assessment

 

Are effective in improving vocabulary and concepts

 

More time should be allocated for solving the crosswords

 

The content reflected the key concepts

 

Should be given individually rather than in small groups

 

The crossword puzzle was challenging

 

Few tutorials should be based on crossword puzzles

 

 Promotes active learning

 

Students should be pre-informed

 

 

Table III : Showing average scores achieved

Set

Topic

Average marks

Percentage (%)

Set-1

General Anatomy

25/50

50%

Set-2

Upper Limb

30/50

60%

Set-3

Lower Limb

33/50

66%

Set-4

Thorax

34/50

68%

Set-5

Abdomen, Pelvis and Perineum

37/50

74%

Set-6

Head and Neck

39/50

78%

Set-7

Neuroanatomy

41/50

82%

Set-8

Osteology

42/50

84%

Average crossword completion index

70.25%

 

Table IV : Showing scores achieved in each of the crosswords

Score

Set-1

Set-2

Set-3

Set-4

Set-5

Set-6

Set-7

Set-8

Total sets

>80%

02

03

04

06

08

09

10

10

052

71%-80%

03

04

05

05

06

06

08

10

047

61%-70%

08

08

06

05

05

05

04

03

044

<60%

12

10

10

09

06

05

03

02

057

Total sets given

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

200

 

Table V: Puzzle Score

Score

No of Sets

>80%

52

 61-80%

91

<60%

57

 

Conclusion
  • Crossword puzzles were well perceived by the students - Challenging, effective & recreational learning tool which enhanced learning.
  • Acceptability for this activity by the students was further strengthened by their suggestion of  providing  more puzzles for other topics & other subjects. 
  • Facilitated active engagement of the students.
  • Provided students with an opportunity to think critically, collaborate, compete, and recall and discuss salient concepts by using essential vocabulary associated with these concepts.
  • Can be used as an active learning strategy to promote self-directed learning.
Take-home Messages
  • Similar innovative exercises as crossword puzzle should be planned in other subjects by selecting tough topics perceived by the students
  • Time slots for such exercises can be planned in all the blocks/modules which may give a scope of learning difficult  topics in an active form, rather than the sutdent becoming less motivated and completely omitting these topics from their studies.
Acknowledgement
  • The authors would like to thank the Dean and management of SIMS for their continuous inspiration and support.
  • The authors would like to thank the organizing committee of SIMEC – 2018, Riyadh for giving us this opportunity.
  • The authors would like to thank all their colleagues, Head of the Department of Anatomy and  Students of 1st MBBS, Batch 2015-16 SIMS who have helped in this study.
References
  1. Kneebone R., Kidd J., Nestel  D., Asvall  S., Paraskeva  P. and Darzi  A. An innovative model for teaching and learning clinical procedures. Medical Education (2002), 36: 628–634. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2923.2002.01261.
  2. Wilkes MS, Hoffman JR. An Innovative Approach to Educating Medical Students about Pharmaceutical Promotion. Academic Medicine. 2001; 76(12). 1271-1277.
  3. Blouin RA, Joyner PU, and Pollack GM. Preparing for a renaissance in pharmacy education: the need, opportunity, and capacity for change. Am J Pharm Educ 2008; 72 (2) Article 42.
  4. Di Piro JT. Why do we still lecture? Am J Pharm Educ. 2009; 73(8) Article 137.
  5. Joan Bryant,   Crossword Puzzles – Entertaining tool to reinforce lecture content in undergraduate physiology teaching,  International Journal of Biomedical Research 2016; 7(6): 346-349.
  6. Bligh D. What’s the Point in Discussion?. In: Bligh D, Ian McNay, Harold Thomas, eds. What’s the Point in Discussion?. 2nd ed. England: Intellect Books, 2000 pp
  7. Svinicki M. Learning and Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom. In: Svinicki M. eds. Learning and Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom 1st ed. Bolton, Jossey-Bass, Anker Publishing; 2004.
  8. Bransford J, Brown A, Cocking R, eds. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Research Council, National Academy Press; 2000.
  9. Augarde T. The Oxford Guide to Word Games. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1984.
  10. Saxena A, Nesbitt R, Pahwa P, Mills S. Crossword puzzles: active learning in undergraduate pathology and medical education. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009; 133(9):1457–1462.
  11. Raines, D.A. (2010). An innovation to facilitate student engagement and learning: Crossword puzzles in the classroom. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 5, 85-90.
  12. Crossman, E.K. and S.M. Crossman (1983). The Crossword puzzle as a teaching tool. Teaching of Psychology, 10(2), 98-99.
  13. Franklin, S., M. Peat and A. Lewis (2003). Non-traditional interventions to stimulate discussion: The use of games and puzzles. Journal of Biological Education, 37(2), 79-84.
  14. Childers CD. Using crossword puzzles as an aid to studying sociological concepts. Teach Sociology. 1996; 24(2):231–235.
  15. O’Leary S, Diepenhorst L, Churley-Strom R, Magrane D. Educational games in an obstetrics and gynecology core curriculum. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 193:1848–1851.
  16. Odenweller CM, Hsu CT, Di Carlo SE. Educational card games for understanding gastrointestinal physiology. Am J Physiol. 1998; 275:78S–84S.
  17. Ballon B, Silver I. Context is key: an interactive experiential and content frame game. Med Teach. 2004; 26:525–528.
  18. Eckert GU, Da Rosa AC, Busnello RG, Melchior R, Masiero PR, Scroferneker ML. Learning from panel boards: T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte self-tolerance game. Med Teach. 2004; 26: 521–524.
  19. Bailey CM, Hsu CT, Di Carlo SE. Educational puzzles for understanding gastrointestinal physiology. Am J Physiol. 1999; 276:1S–18S.
  20. Kuhn MA. Gaming: a technique that adds spice to learning? J Contin Educ Nurs 1995 Jan-Feb; 26 (1):35-9.
  21. Bunce, D.M., Flens, E.A., and Neiles, K.Y. (2010). How long can students pay attention in class? A study of student attention decline using clickers. Journal of Chemical Education, 87 (12), 1438-1443.
  22. Weisskirch, R. S. (2006). An Analysis of Instructor-Created Crossword Puzzles or Student Review. College Teaching, 54(1), 198-202.
  23. Ritzko, J.M., Robinson, S. (2006). Using games to increase active learning. Journal of College Teaching& Learning, 3(6), 45–50.
  24. Runki Saran, Saurabh Kumar, Use of crossword puzzle as a teaching aid to facilitate active learning in dental materials INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH Volume : 5 | Issue : 4 | April 2015 | ISSN - 2249-555X.
  25. Crossword Puzzles as a Tool to Enhance Learning About Anti-Ulcer Agents, Samit Shah, PhD, Launa M. J. Lynch, PhD, and Lilia Z. Macias-Moriarity, PhD   Am J Pharm Educ. 2010 Sep 10; 74(7): 117.
  26. Tufts MA, Higgins-Opitz SB. What makes the learning of physiology in a PBL medical curriculum challenging? Student perceptions. Adv Physiol Educ 33: 187–195, 2009.
  27. Kalyani P. Crosswords as a learning tool in Anatomy and Physiology teaching. Med Teach. 2007; 29 (5): 513.
  28. Nitin Gaikwad, Suresh Tankhiwale; Crossword puzzles: self-learning tool in Pharmacology; Perspect Med Educ. 2012; 1: 237-248. 
  29. Barclay SM, Jeffres MN, Bhakta R. Educational card games to teach pharmacotherapeutics in an advanced pharmacy practice experience. Am J Pharm Educ 75: 1–7, 2011.
  30. Fernanda K. Marcondes, Maria J. C. S. Moura, Andrea Sanches et al. A puzzle used to teach the cardiac cycle. Adv Physiol Educ 2015; 39: 27–31.
  31. Middendorf J, Kalish A. The change-up in lectures. Natl Teach Learn Forum 1996; 5(2):1-7.
  32. Rodenbaugh HR, Lujan HL, Rodenbaugh DW and DiCarlo SE Having fun and accepting challenges are natural instincts: jigsaw puzzles to challenge students and test their abilities while having fun. Adv Physiol Educ 2014.38: 185–186.
  33. Davis TM, Shepherd B and Zwiefelhofer T. Reviewing for exams: do crossword puzzles help in the success of student learning? The Journal of Effective Teaching 2009; 9 (3): 4-10.
  34. Massey AP, Brown SA, Johnston JD. It’s all fun and games until students learn. J Inf Syst Educ. 2005; 16:9–14.
Designed & Managed by Innovative Technology®
Background
Summary of Work
Summary of Results
Conclusion
Take-home Messages
Acknowledgement
References
Send ePoster Link